Simple Description To Common Logical Fallacies



A logical fallacy is often what has happened when someone is wrong about something. it's a flaw in reasoning. They're like tricks or illusions of thought, and they're often very sneakily used by politicians, the media, and others to fool people. Don't be fooled! This poster has been designed to help you identity and call out dodgy logic whenever it may raise it's ugly, incoherent head.

STRAWMAN
Misrepresenting or exaggerating someones argument to make it easier to attack.

FALSE CAUSE
Presuming that a real or perceived relationship between things means that one is the cause of the other.

SLIPPERY SLOPE
Asserting that if we allow A to happen, then Z will consequently happen too therefore A should not happen.

AD HOMINEM
Attacking your opponent's character or personal traits instead of engaging with their argument.

SPECIAL PLEADING
Moving the goalposts or making up exceptions when claim is shown to be false.

LOADED QUESTION
Asking a question that has an assumption built into it so that it can't be answered without appearing guilty.

BANDWAGON
Appealing to popularity or the fact that many people do something as an attempted form of validation.

BEGGING THE QUESTION
A circular argument in which the conclusion is included in the premise.

APPEAL TO AUTHORITY
Using the opinion or position of an authority figure, or institution of authority, in place of an actual argument.

APPEAL TO NATURE
Making the argument that because something is "natural" it is therefore valid, justified, inevitable, or ideal.

COMPOSITION/DIVISION
Assuming that what's true about one part of something has to be applied to all, or other, parts of it.

ANECDOTAL
Using personal experience or an isolated example instead of a valid argument, especially to dismiss statistics.

APPEAL TO EMOTION
Manipulating an emotional response in place of a valid or compelling argument.

TU QUOQUE
Avoiding having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser - answering them with criticism.

BURDEN OF PROOF
Saying that the burden of proof lies not with the person making the claim, but with someone else to disprove.

NO TRUE SCOTSMAN
Making what could be called an appeal to purity as a way to dismiss relevant criticisms or flaws of an argument.

THE TEXAS SHARPSHOOTER
Cherry-picking data clusters to suit an argument, or finding a pattern to fit a presumption.

THE FALLACY FALLACY
Presuming that because a claim has been poorly argued, or a fallacy has been made that it is necessarily wrong.

PERSONAL INCREDULITY
Saying that because one finds something difficult to understand that it's therefore not true.

AMBIGUITY
Using double meanings or ambiguities of language to mislead or misrepresent the truth.

GENETIC
Judging something good or bad on the basis of where it comes from, or from whom it comes.

MIDDLE GROUND
Saying that a compromise, or middle point, between two extremes is the truth.